Monday, May 11, 2020

Substance Abuse And Substance Use Disorder - 998 Words

According to the Diagnostic Statistic Manual 5 (DSM-5) substance use disorder is when the individual has a dependency on alcohol or drug, followed by penetrating craving and antisocial behavior to acquire the substance. The terms substance abuse and substance dependence refer to substance use disorder, which has been separated into three classifications as follows 1. Moderate Drinking the Dietary Guideline says 1 drink a day by women and 2 drinks for men. 2. Binge Drinking 5 or more alcoholic drink during the same occasion on 1 day within the past month. However the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism states the pattern of drinking by which your blood alcohol concentration is above 0.07g/dl, 4 drinks for women, and 5 for men over a 180 minute period. 3. Heavy Drinking 5 or more drinks daily in the past month (SAMHSA, 2014) To be diagnose with substance use disorder the person will have the following symptoms that has occurred during a 1 year period. The inability to manage key obligations at home not paying mortgages and bills, work not showing up or missing important deadline or school not going. Driving while under the influence which could cause physical harm and hazard to yourself and others, social and personal issues because of substance use, legal problems because of substance use disorder. The identifying difference in the DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorder would be the 2-3 out of the 11 symptoms is Mild, 4-5 is classified as moderate, andShow MoreRelatedSubstance Use Disorder And Substance Abuse997 Words   |  4 PagesSubstance use disorder is defined as being a pattern of maladaptive behaviors and reactions brought about by repeated use of a substance, sometimes also including tolerance for the substance and withdrawal reactions. (pg. 294). The individual I will be talking about for the project is someone that came to crave a particular substance and rely on it every day. Their choice to devote so much of their time to their substance caused issues between their family and friends. Both family and friends startedRead MoreThe Use Of Alcohol And Substance Abuse Disorder917 Words   |  4 PagesMs. A is a 24-year-old, Caucasian female. She was referred for a psychological evaluation by her therapist for her excessive use of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Disorde r. Additionally, Ms. A stated she has been experiencing a loss of interest, low self-esteem and feeling anxious. She complains that her struggle with substance abuse has negatively impacted her interpersonal relationships, behavioral, emotional as well as her health. The purpose of the current evaluation is to (1) evaluate her levelRead MoreAttention Deficit / Hyperactive Disorder ( Adhd )1166 Words   |  5 PagesAttention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) has become one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders in children and adolescent. â€Å"ADHD is defined as a chronic condition marked by persistent inattention, hyperactivity, and sometimes impulsivity.† (Disney, 1999) There is concern about the possible connection between ADHD to substance use and abuse, during childhood and adolescence, since it is such an important developmental stage in life. â€Å"Substance abuse disorder is defined as a physicalRead More Eating Disorders And Substance Abuse Essay1 636 Words   |  7 PagesEating Disorders And Substance Abuse Common Eating Disorders: The two most common eating disorders are bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa. Both disorders, primarily affect young women, therefore the majority of the research on eating disorders has been done with women subjects. The onset of bulimia is between adolescence and early adulthood while the onset of anorexia is between early and late adolescence. Not only is the onset different but the disorders are unique. Bulimia nervosa isRead MoreEating Disorders And Anorexia Nervosa951 Words   |  4 PagesEating disorders are a sickness that can come from psychological issues and it can disrupt the everyday diet. â€Å"A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of food, but at some point, the urge to eat less or more spiraled out of control.† The common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa is when someone see’s themselves as an overweight person, so they watch what they eat since, they have a fear of becoming overweightRead MoreThe Abuse Of Drugs And Alcohol1365 Words   |  6 PagesThe abuse of drugs and alcohol has been a known issue over past decades. The media paints the picture that alcohol and drug use is fun and the only way to have a good time. While alcohol in moderation is fine, many people find themselves going over board and abusing it. Elicit drugs like cocaine and heroin are highly addictive and have several adverse effects. People find themselves depressed and anxious so they ultimately try to use these drugs to mask the pain instead of getting help for theirRead MoreThe Prevalence of Co-Occurring Disorders Essay893 Words   |  4 PagesPREVALENCE OF CO-OCCURRING DISORDERS The Prevalence of Co-Occurring Disorders Launita D. Joseph Grand Canyon University August 15, 2012 The Prevalence of Co-Occurring Disorders When a counselor has a new client they are working with, the client has to be assessed. When being assessed the counselor has to determine what issues the client may have. Through being assessed, the counselor may come to realize the client has more than one issue which is called co-occurring disorders. At this point theRead MoreCorrelation Between Parietal And Adolescent Drug Abuse1578 Words   |  7 PagesSarah Tischbein Gd3423 Psych Extra Credit Ye In Oh Correlation Between Parietal and Adolescent Drug Abuse In today s society substance abuse is a common problem throughout the United States of America. The objective of the experiment is to show the correlation between substance use behaviors of parents and their children’s substance use initiation and other risky behaviors. The experiment is focused on the role of mothers and fathers as a separate study. The surveys that take place through a seriesRead MoreAlcohol And Drug Use Among College Students960 Words   |  4 Pagesand drug use among college students is viewed as innoxious fun which students take part in to get away from the stress of being a student. What begins as innocent fun can quickly lead to a self-destructive path. While often referred to as substance abuse, The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 redefined it as; Substance Use Disorders and explains it to be as a cluster of cognitive, behavioral and physiological symptoms which indicate that an individual continues to use a substanceRead More Relationship Between Mental Health And Addiction1470 Words   |  6 PagesIf you or someone you love is seeking treatment for a substance abuse related disorder in addition to a psychiatric disorder, you will come across two terms in your research: co-occurring disorders and dual diagnosis. Right off you may be more concerned about simply getting help for your addiction. Maybe it has caused you to lose your job and your family is in tatters. It s important to note that when substance abuse and mental illness co-occur specialized treatment is needed. First, however, you

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Victimiology and Alternatives to the Traditional Criminal Justice System Free Essays

Restorative justice is a procedure whereby all interested parties in a particular offence collectively gather to determine together how to deal with the consequence of the offense and its significance for the future. From the victim’s standpoint, restorative justice has been shown as a rule to have achieved better conflict resolution than the existing system of criminal justice. The concept enables the victims to have a voice in the justice process, by offering them an opportunity to ask queries and seek out answers, affording them a part in the sentencing resolution and providing them with opportunities for closure and healing. We will write a custom essay sample on Victimiology and Alternatives to the Traditional Criminal Justice System or any similar topic only for you Order Now Victimiology and Alternatives to the Traditional Criminal Justice System The term â€Å"restorative justice† has come into view in varied forms, with diverse names, and in several countries; it has sprung from sites of academia, activism, and justice system agencies. The idea may refer to an alternative procedure for resolving controversies, to alternative options of interdiction, or to a uniquely different, â€Å"new† approach of criminal justice organized around theories of restoration to offenders, victims, and the communities in which the parties live. The term may also confer to diversion from recognized court process, to actions taken in parallel with court judgments, and to meetings between victims and` offenders at any phase of the criminal process. Although restorative justice is a large concept with compound referents, there is a comprehensive sense of what it stands for. It calls attention to the repair of damages and of shattered social bonds resulting from crime; and concentrates on the relationships between crime offenders, victims, and society. Restorative justice is a procedure whereby all interested parties in a particular offence collectively gather to determine together how to deal with the consequence of the offense and its significance for the future. For victims, it enables them to have a voice in the justice process, by offering them an opportunity to ask queries and seek out answers, affording them a part in the sentencing resolution, and providing them with opportunities for closure and healing. It is not merely a way of correcting the criminal justice system; it is a way of changing society’s practice of politics, conduct in the workplace, family lives, and entire legal structure. The restorative justice’s vision is of a holistic change in the manner people carry out justice with the rest of the world. Whether restorative justice can eventually be of assistance to the victims without impairing the community or justice remains to be seen. But it is becoming apparent that the concept does without a doubt helps most victims. Increasing observed benefits and advantages of restorative justice are outweighing the insignificant harms caused by it. The said findings appeared from a research study conducted in Australia over the period of 1995 to 2000; known as the Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (Ronken and Lincoln, n. d. , p. 3). The assessments integrated observations of the court and conferences proceedings, review of official data, and consultation with the victims after their cases were ordered. The assessment revealed: Firstly, the manners of intervention in restorative justice are organized affords much greater prospect for victims to know about the development of their cases than available when cases are processed all the way through the courts. In practice, victims are unusually told nothing concerning their case when they are not obliged to be witnesses. This inadequacy of communication was the particular greatest reason for victims’ dissatisfaction whose cases went to court. Secondly, a restorative justice encounter expectedly necessitates a high degree of participation by both offenders and victims. Victims stresses that personal delivery of justice is one of the advantages that they admire in restorative justice process that are not presented in the court. Thirdly, if emotional restitution is what victims’ value most for their mending, then restorative justice provides sufficient opportunity for the said restitution to take place. Fourthly, victims are more likely to acquire restitution through restorative justice as compared through the courts. Victims often obtained some other form of material reparation, such as service by the offender for the affected people or for the community. Lastly, 90 percent of victims who experienced restorative justice answered that they have been treated respectfully and justly in the resolution of their cases as they believed the meeting had taken account of what they alleged in deciding what should be done (Strang and Sherman, 2003, p. 35). Peacemaking Strategies Peacemaking strategies are holistic approach to crime and conflict and are used for centuries now in several countries. Peacemaking strategies deal with the fundamental causes of conflicts and violence. The approach considers the needs of offenders, victims, communities and families within a re-integrative framework. Peacemaking has a prospective to: assist adults and youth who come into dispute with the law; guarantee the development of responsible and healthy youth; support and recognize violence-free relationships; and increase the competence of communities to deal with social justice and criminal issues (Paiement, 2006, p. 5). Feedback from those who experienced peacemaking process noted the educational nature of the strategy; that they were able to take part openly and usually remarked on an approval for the peace talking; the process is competent in dealing with the issues of the parties directly and helping the offenders be aware of the outcomes of their actions; and the parties of the process were often very emotional and the victim felt respected and honoured (Paiement, 2006, p. 19). Shaming In the United States, most community registration and notification laws were enacted in the early 1990’s instantaneously after the occurrence of several high profile cases on violent sexual acts. Currently, state-controlled or public domain notification comes in two fundamental forms. The first is the registration that brings about the reporting of the criminals to justice bureaus in order for the latter to keep an eye on criminals’ movements. The second form is termed â€Å"community notification. † It comes in a range of forms such as internet postings, news releases, community conferences and targeting specific local areas, organizations or groups to give advice to the population concerning discharged sex offenders. However, shaming through notification laws will not automatically provide justice to the victims or shield the community from sex offenders. There are several well acknowledged explanations for such a conclusion. The explanation includes: that the shaming approach may promote displacement; offer a false sense of protection; incorrect forms of insulting; are based on high-levels of recidivism; lead to more costly and weighty justice processes; and may aggravate vigilante attacks (Ronken and Lincoln, n. d. , p. 9). In the United States it is estimated that sex offenders’ population are already 250,000, with 60 percent released in the community. It is clear that every individual cannot be advised in relation to all possible offenders prowling in their community. The aforementioned facts suggest the inefficiency of notification laws as a useful alternative to the traditional justice system. Further, notification conveys a frustrating message to the victims as well as the community that the state is capable to notify them about offenders within their midst but can present no means to deal with the dilemma. On the other hand John Braithwaite’s â€Å"reintegrative shaming† theory aims to eliminate the shaming nature of long-established criminal justice process that communities and families employ in reparation for the damages done to them. The concept is accomplished through a phrase of retrial for the offender’s act and a process of reintegrating the lawbreaker back into their society through acts of acceptance and forgiveness. Thus, if notification laws are steadily influenced in the principles of restorative justice, including reintegration and shaming, then there may be a decline in the level of re-offending and a greater sense of justice and fairness to the victims. How to cite Victimiology and Alternatives to the Traditional Criminal Justice System, Papers

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Serological testing free essay sample

Using Direct Fluorescent Antibody Technique to Test for Chlamydia 1. Describe the importance of the washing steps in the direct antibody fluorescence test. It’s very important for the washing steps in the direct antibody fluorescence test to decrease the no-specific binding. 2. Explain where the epitope (antigenic determinant) is located. The epitopes are located in the antigens for the antibodies binding. 3. Describe how a positive result is detected in this serological test. The elementary bodies of the Chlamydia trachomatis stains green inside the red host cell, and the presence of more elementary bodies in a field of view compared to the positive control is considered a positive result. 4. How would the results be affected if a negative control gave a positive result? If a negative control gave a positive result, the positive results would be underestimated. A C T I V I T Y 2 Comparing Samples with Ouchterlony Double Diffusion 1. Describe how you were able to determine what antigen is in the unknown well. We will write a custom essay sample on Serological testing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The results between well 2 5 were the same results as. We know that human serum albumin was placed in 4, so it should be the same in 5 to achieve the same result. 2. Why does the precipitin line form? The precipitin line occurs when the antigen and antibody are in optimal proportions and cross-linking occurs forming an insoluble precipitate. 3. Did you think human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin would have epitopes in common? How well did the results compare with your prediction? I think they have epitopes in common for the results showed they have partial identity. Same as my prediction.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Nelson Mandela - A Biography

Nelson Mandela - A Biography Nelson Mandela was elected the first black president of South Africa in 1994, following the first multiracial election in South Africas history. Mandela was imprisoned from 1962 to 1990 for his role in fighting apartheid policies established by the ruling white minority. Revered by his people as a national symbol of the struggle for equality, Mandela is considered one of the 20th centurys most influential political figures. He and South African Prime Minister F.W. de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for their role in dismantling the apartheid system. Dates: July 18, 1918- December 5, 2013 Also Known As: Rolihlahla Mandela, Madiba, Tata Famous quote:   I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. Childhood Nelson Rilihlahla Mandela was born in the village of Mveso, Transkei, South Africa on July 18, 1918 to Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa and Noqaphi Nosekeni, the third of Gadlas four wives. In Mandelas native language, Xhosa, Rolihlahla meant troublemaker. The surname Mandela came from one of his grandfathers. Mandelas father was a chief of the Thembu tribe in the Mvezo region, but served under the authority of the ruling British government. As a descendant of royalty, Mandela was expected to serve in his fathers role when he came of age. But when Mandela was only an infant, his father rebelled against the British government by refusing a mandatory appearance before the British magistrate. For this, he was stripped of his chieftaincy and his wealth, and forced to leave his home. Mandela and his three sisters moved with their mother back to her home village of Qunu. There, the family lived in more modest circumstances. The family lived in mud huts and survived on the crops they grew and the cattle and sheep they raised. Mandela, along with the other village boys, worked herding sheep and cattle. He later recalled this as one of the happiest periods in his life. Many evenings, villagers sat around the fire, telling the children stories passed down through generations, of what life had been like before the white man had arrived. From the mid-17th century, Europeans (first the Dutch and later the British) had arrived on South African soil and gradually taken control from the native South African tribes. The discovery of diamonds and gold in South Africa in the 19th century had only tightened the grip that Europeans had on the nation. By 1900, most of South Africa was under the control of Europeans. In 1910, the British colonies merged with the Boer (Dutch) republics to form the Union of South Africa, a part of the British Empire. Stripped of their homelands, many Africans were forced to work for white employers at low-paying jobs. Young Nelson Mandela, living in his small village, did not yet feel the impact of centuries of domination by the white minority. Mandelas Education Although themselves uneducated, Mandelas parents wanted their son to go to school. At the age of seven, Mandela was enrolled in the local mission school. On the first day of class, each child was given an English first name; Rolihlahla was given the name Nelson. When he was nine years old, Mandelas father died. According to his fathers last wishes, Mandela was sent to live in the Thembu capital, Mqhekezeweni, where he could continue his education under the guidance of another tribal chief, Jongintaba Dalindyebo. Upon first seeing the chiefs estate, Mandela marveled at his large home and beautiful gardens. In Mqhekezeweni, Mandela attended another mission school and became a devout Methodist during his years with the Dalindyebo family. Mandela also attended tribal meetings with the chief, who taught him how a leader should conduct himself. When Mandela was 16, he was sent to a boarding school in a town several hundred miles away. Upon his graduation in 1937 at the age of 19, Mandela enrolled in Healdtown, a Methodist college. An accomplished student, Mandela also became active in boxing, soccer, and long-distance running. In 1939, after earning his certificate, Mandela began his studies for a Bachelor of Arts at the prestigious Fort Hare College, with a plan to ultimately attend law school. But Mandela did not complete his studies at Fort Hare; instead, he was expelled after participating in a student protest. He returned to the home of Chief Dalindyebo, where he was met with anger and disappointment. Just weeks after his return home, Mandela received stunning news from the chief. Dalindyebo had arranged for both his son, Justice, and Nelson Mandela to marry women of his choosing. Neither young man would consent to an arranged marriage, so the two decided to flee to Johannesburg, the South African capital. Desperate for money to finance their trip, Mandela and Justice stole two of the chiefs oxen and sold them for train fare. Move to Johannesburg Arriving in Johannesburg in 1940, Mandela found the bustling city an exciting place. Soon, however, he was awakened to the injustice of the black mans life in South Africa. Prior to moving to the capital, Mandela had lived mainly among other blacks. But in Johannesburg, he saw the disparity between the races. Black residents lived in slum-like townships that had no electricity or running water; while whites lived grandly off the wealth of the gold mines. Mandela moved in with a cousin and quickly found a job as a security guard. He was soon fired when his employers learned about his theft of the oxen and his escape from his benefactor. Mandelas luck changed when he was introduced to Lazar Sidelsky, a liberal-minded white lawyer. After learning of Mandelas desire to become an attorney, Sidelsky, who ran a large law firm serving both blacks and whites, offered to let Mandela work for him as a law clerk. Mandela gratefully accepted and took on the job at the age of 23, even as he worked to finish his BA via correspondence course. Mandela rented a room in one of the local black townships. He studied by candlelight each night and often walked the six miles to work and back because he lacked bus fare. Sidelsky supplied him with an old suit, which Mandela patched up and wore nearly every day for five years. Committed to the Cause In 1942, Mandela finally completed his BA and enrolled at the University of Witwatersrand as a part-time law student. At Wits, he met several people who would work with him in the years to come for the cause of liberation. In 1943, Mandela joined the African National Congress (ANC),  an organization that worked to improve conditions for blacks in South Africa. That same year, Mandela marched in a successful bus boycott staged by thousands of residents of Johannesburg in protest of high bus fares. As he grew more infuriated by racial inequalities, Mandela deepened his commitment to the struggle for liberation. He helped to form the Youth League, which sought to recruit younger members and transform the ANC into a more militant organization, one that would fight for equal rights. Under laws of the time, Africans were forbidden from owning land or houses in the towns, their wages were five times lower than those of whites, and none could vote. In 1944, Mandela, 26, married nurse Evelyn Mase, 22, and they moved into a small rental home. The couple had a son, Madiba (Thembi), in February 1945, and a daughter, Makaziwe, in 1947. Their daughter died of meningitis as an infant. They welcomed another son, Makgatho, in 1950, and a second daughter, named Makaziwe after her late sister, in 1954. Following the general elections of 1948 in which the white National Party claimed victory, the partys first official act was to establish apartheid. With this act, the long-held, haphazard system of segregation in South Africa became a formal, institutionalized policy, supported by laws and regulations. The new policy would even determine, by race, which parts of town each group could live in. Blacks and whites were to be separated from each other in all aspects of life, including public transportation, in theaters and restaurants, and even on beaches. The Defiance Campaign Mandela completed his law studies in 1952 and, with partner Oliver Tambo, opened the first black law practice in Johannesburg. The practice was busy from the start. Clients included Africans who suffered the injustices of racism, such as seizure of property by whites and beatings by the police. Despite facing hostility from white judges and lawyers, Mandela was a successful attorney. He had a dramatic, impassioned style in the courtroom. During the 1950s, Mandela became more actively involved with the protest movement. He was elected president of the ANC Youth League in 1950. In June 1952, the ANC, along with Indians and colored (biracial) people- two other groups also targeted by discriminatory laws- began a period of nonviolent protest known as the Defiance Campaign. Mandela spearheaded the campaign by recruiting, training, and organizing volunteers. The campaign lasted six months, with cities and towns throughout South Africa participating. Volunteers defied the laws by entering areas meant for whites only. Several thousand were arrested in that six-month time, including Mandela and other ANC leaders. He and the other members of the group were found guilty of statutory communism and sentenced to nine months of hard labor, but the sentence was suspended. The publicity garnered during the Defiance Campaign helped membership in the ANC soar to 100,000. Arrested for Treason The government twice banned Mandela, meaning that he could not attend public meetings, or even family gatherings, because of his involvement in the ANC. His 1953 banning lasted two years. Mandela, along with others on the executive committee of the ANC, drew up the Freedom Charter in June 1955 and presented it during a special meeting called the Congress of the People. The charter called for equal rights for all, regardless of race, and the ability of all citizens to vote, own land, and hold decent-paying jobs. In essence, the charter called for a non-racial South Africa. Months after the charter was presented, police raided the homes of hundreds of members of the ANC and arrested them. Mandela and 155 others were charged with high treason. They were released to await a trial date. Mandelas marriage to Evelyn suffered from the strain of his long absences; they divorced in 1957 after 13 years of marriage. Through work, Mandela met Winnie Madikizela, a social worker who had sought his legal advice. They married in June 1958, just months before Mandelas trial began in August. Mandela was 39 years old, Winnie only 21. The trial would last three years; during that time, Winnie gave birth to two daughters, Zenani and Zindziswa. Sharpeville Massacre The trial, whose venue was changed to Pretoria, moved at a snails pace. The preliminary arraignment alone took a year; the actual trial didnt start until August 1959. Charges were dropped against all but 30 of the accused. Then, on March 21, 1960, the trial was interrupted by a national crisis. In early March, another anti-apartheid group, the Pan African Congress (PAC) had held large demonstrations protesting strict pass laws, which required Africans to carry identification papers with them at all times in order to be able to travel throughout the country. During one such protest in Sharpeville, police had opened fire on unarmed protestors, killing 69, and wounding more than 400. The shocking incident, which was universally condemned, was called the Sharpeville Massacre. Mandela and other ANC leaders called for a national day of mourning, along with a stay at home strike. Hundreds of thousands participated in a mostly peaceful demonstration, but some rioting erupted. The South African government declared a national state of emergency and martial law was enacted. Mandela and his co-defendants were moved into prison cells, and both the ANC and PAC were officially banned. The treason trial resumed on April 25, 1960 and lasted until March 29, 1961. To the surprise of many, the court dropped charges against all of the defendants, citing a lack of evidence proving that the defendants had planned to violently overthrow the government. For many, it was cause for celebration, but Nelson Mandela had no time to celebrate. He was about to enter into a new- and dangerous- chapter in his life. The Black Pimpernel Prior to the verdict, the banned ANC had held an illegal meeting and decided that if Mandela was acquitted, he would go underground after the trial. He would operate clandestinely to give speeches and gather support for the liberation movement. A new organization, the National Action Council (NAC), was formed and Mandela named as its leader. In accordance with the ANC plan, Mandela became a fugitive directly after the trial. He went into hiding at the first of several safe houses, most of them located in the Johannesburg area. Mandela stayed on the move, knowing that the police were looking everywhere for him. Venturing out only at night, when he felt safest, Mandela dressed in disguises, such as a chauffeur or a chef. He made unannounced appearances, giving speeches at places that were presumed safe, and also made radio broadcasts. The press took to calling him the Black Pimpernel, after the title character in the novel The Scarlet Pimpernel. In October 1961, Mandela moved to a farm in Rivonia, outside of Johannesburg. He was safe for a time there and could even enjoy visits from Winnie and their daughters. Spear of the Nation In response to the governments increasingly violent treatment of protestors, Mandela developed a new arm of the ANC- a military unit that he named Spear of the Nation, known also as MK. The MK would operate using a strategy of sabotage, targeting military installations, power facilities, and transportation links. Its goal was to damage property of the state, but not to harm individuals. The MKs first attack came in December 1961, when they bombed an electric power station and empty government offices in Johannesburg. Weeks later, another set of bombings were carried out. White South Africans were startled into the realization that they could no longer take their safety for granted. In January 1962, Mandela, who had never in his life been out of South Africa, was smuggled out of the country to attend a Pan-African conference. He hoped to get financial and military support from other African nations, but was not successful. In Ethiopia, Mandela received training in how to fire a gun and how to build small explosives. Captured After 16 months on the run, Mandela was captured on August 5, 1962, when the car he was driving was overtaken by police. He was arrested on charges of leaving the country illegally and inciting a strike. The trial began on October 15, 1962. Refusing counsel, Mandela spoke on his own behalf. He used his time in court to denounce the governments immoral, discriminatory policies. Despite his impassioned speech, he was sentenced to five years in prison. Mandela was 44 years old when he entered Pretoria Local Prison. Imprisoned in Pretoria for six months, Mandela was then taken to Robben Island, a bleak, isolated prison off the coast of Cape Town, in May 1963. After only a few weeks there, Mandela learned he was about to head back to court- this time on charges of sabotage. He would be charged along with several other members of MK, who had been arrested on the farm in Rivonia. During the trial, Mandela admitted his role in the formation of MK. He emphasized his belief that the protestors were only working toward what they deserved- equal political rights. Mandela concluded his statement by saying that he was prepared to die for his cause. Mandela and his seven co-defendants received guilty verdicts on June 11, 1964. They could have been sentenced to death for so serious a charge, but each was given life imprisonment. All of the men (except one white prisoner) were sent to Robben Island. Life at Robben Island At Robben Island, each prisoner had a small cell with a single light that stayed on 24 hours a day. Prisoners slept on the floor upon a thin mat. Meals consisted of cold porridge and an occasional vegetable or piece of meat (although Indian and Asian prisoners received more generous rations than their black counterparts.) As a reminder of their lower status, black prisoners wore short pants all year-round, whereas others were allowed to wear trousers. Inmates spent nearly ten hours a day at hard labor, digging out rocks from a limestone quarry. The hardships of prison life made it difficult to maintain ones dignity, but Mandela resolved not to be defeated by his imprisonment. He became the spokesperson and leader of the group, and was known by his clan name, Madiba. Over the years, Mandela led the prisoners in numerous protests- hunger strikes, food boycotts, and work slowdowns. He also demanded reading and study privileges. In most cases, the protests eventually yielded results. Mandela suffered personal losses during his imprisonment. His mother died in January 1968 and his 25-year-old son Thembi died in a car accident the following year. A heartbroken Mandela was not allowed to attend either funeral. In 1969, Mandela received word that his wife Winnie had been arrested on charges of communist activities. She spent 18 months in solitary confinement and was subjected to torture. The knowledge that Winnie had been imprisoned caused Mandela great distress. Free Mandela Campaign Throughout his imprisonment, Mandela remained the symbol of the anti-apartheid movement, still inspiring his countrymen. Following a Free Mandela campaign in 1980 that attracted global attention, the government capitulated somewhat. In April 1982, Mandela and four other Rivonia prisoners were transferred to Pollsmoor Prison on the mainland. Mandela was 62 years old and had been at Robben Island for 19 years. Conditions were much improved from those at Robben Island. Inmates were allowed to read newspapers, watch TV, and receive visitors. Mandela was given a lot of publicity, as the government wanted to prove to the world that he was being treated well. In an effort to stem the violence and repair the failing economy, Prime Minister P.W. Botha announced on January 31, 1985 that he would release Nelson Mandela if Mandela agreed to renounce violent demonstrations. But Mandela refused any offer that was not unconditional. In December 1988, Mandela was transferred to a private residence at the Victor Verster prison outside Cape Town and later brought in for secret negotiations with the government. Little was accomplished, however, until Botha resigned from his position in August 1989, forced out by his cabinet. His successor, F.W. de Klerk, was ready to negotiate for peace. He was willing to meet with Mandela. Freedom at Last At Mandelas urging, de Klerk released Mandelas fellow political prisoners without condition in October 1989. Mandela and de Klerk had long discussions about the illegal status of the ANC and other opposition groups, but came to no specific agreement. Then, on February 2, 1990, de Klerk made an announcement that stunned Mandela and all of South Africa. De Klerk enacted a number of sweeping reforms, lifting the bans on the ANC, the PAC, and the Communist Party, among others. He lifted the restrictions still in place from the 1986 state of emergency and ordered the release of all nonviolent political prisoners. On February 11, 1990, Nelson Mandela was given an unconditional release from prison. After 27 years in custody, he was a free man at the age of 71. Mandela was welcomed home by thousands of people cheering in the streets. Soon after his return home, Mandela learned that his wife Winnie had fallen in love with another man in his absence. The Mandelas separated in April 1992 and later divorced. Mandela knew that despite the impressive changes that had been made, there was still much work to be done. He returned immediately to working for the ANC, traveling across South Africa to speak with various groups and to serve as a negotiator for further reforms. In 1993, Mandela and de Klerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their joint effort to bring about peace in South Africa. President Mandela On April 27, 1994, South Africa held its first election in which blacks were allowed to vote. The ANC won 63 percent of the votes, a majority in Parliament. Nelson Mandela- only four years after his release from prison- was elected the first black president of South Africa. Nearly three centuries of white domination had ended. Mandela visited many Western nations in an attempt to convince leaders to work with the new government in South Africa. He also made efforts to help bring about peace in several African nations, including Botswana, Uganda, and Libya. Mandela soon earned the admiration and respect of many outside of South Africa. During Mandelas term, he addressed the need for housing, running water, and electricity for all South Africans. The government also returned land to those it had been taken from, and made it legal again for blacks to own land. In 1998, Mandela married Graca Machel on his eightieth birthday. Machel, 52 years old, was the widow of a former president of Mozambique. Nelson Mandela did not seek re-election in 1999. He was replaced by his Deputy President, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela retired to his mothers village of Qunu, Transkei. Mandela became involved in raising funds for HIV/AIDS, an epidemic in Africa. He organized the AIDS benefit 46664 Concert in 2003, so named after his prison ID number. In 2005, Mandelas own son, Makgatho, died of AIDS at the age of 44. In 2009, the United Nations General Assembly designated July 18, Mandelas birthday, as Nelson Mandela International Day. Nelson Mandela died at his Johannesburg home on December 5, 2013 at the age of 95.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Working Remotely The Pros and Cons of Remote Work

Working Remotely The Pros and Cons of Remote Work Working 9 to 5 When I worked in a â€Å"9 to 5† job as a legal services attorney, I used to stop at the gym on my way back from morning court dates. No one really knew at what time I was finished in court, and I always got my work done, staying late if necessary. So I never got in trouble for my liberties. And while I felt a little guilty about pushing the boundaries of my workday, overall I was happier. I could both keep my job and do other things that were important to me. What made me less happy was that I didn’t spend as much time as I wanted with my family, who lived in a different state. With just two or three weeks’ vacation, I did not have much flexibility. I would travel for short weekends, never feeling like I had enough time to spend with the people I loved. The Pleasures of Flex Time and Working Remotely Now that I am a business owner working from home, my flexible hours are a given. I make my own schedule (which includes  9:30am yoga classes). I can travel whenever I want, to anywhere I want, as long as there’s a phone and internet connection. Sure I work every day, but at least I get some changes of scenery. It would be hard for me to adjust now to a job that required me to be in an office for 9 hours a day, 5 days a week. A remote job, however, I could handle. Especially if it came with flex time and â€Å"unlimited vacation,† perks which many companies are starting to offer. I’m not alone in my sentiments. It turns out remote workers are happier and more productive, and feel more valued than non-remote employees. And a Harvard Business Review article cited a survey conducted by Fractl which found that â€Å"after health insurance, employees place the highest value on benefits †¦ such as flexible hours, more paid vacation time, and work-from-home options.  Not surprisingly, parents are the demographic most enthusiastic about flexible hours and work-life balance. They value these perks even more than health insurance when considering potential job offers! Remote Working Trends FlexJobs reports that 3.9 million U.S. employees work from home at least half of the time, more than double the number from 13 years ago. Interestingly, older workers (over 35) are more likely to telecommute than younger ones. Oh yes, I remember that up until age 35, I found it natural to go to an office and stay there all day! I must admit this data on rising remote work surprised me. I had recently heard about big companies like Yahoo, IBM, and Bank of America going in the opposite direction. They have called thousands of remote employees back into the office – resulting in widespread layoffs. The idea was that remote workers were not able to collaborate and participate in company culture to the extent these companies needed. There were also some situations where employees took inappropriate advantage of their right to work from home. Achieving Balance As with anything in life, balance – and communication – are key. Some companies, like Buffer and Basecamp, function well with fully remote teams. They have robust systems in place to ensure collaboration and communication. Other organizations do better having their employees in person, but allowing flexibility when, for instance, an employee’s child has a doctor’s appointment. And some positions at the same company can be better suited to remote work than others. I’m hearing from some clients that they have been working remotely in their current positions, but to advance to higher levels they need to be physically in the office. That makes sense to me. The benefits to employees of working remotely are clear, and so are the down-sides – like weaker relationships with colleagues, and the pull to procrastinate. Different personalities are suited to different levels of freedom. Benefits for Companies For companies, there are cost-saving benefits to leveraging remote workers. People who previously had to fly from across the globe for meetings, now can attend remotely with the same result. Software platforms (Zoom, Dropbox, GoogleDocs, Slack, etc.) make collaboration easy across continents, and new companies are springing up to take advantage of remote working trends. Remote workers’ productivity is also less affected by things like snow days (better for the company, perhaps, but maybe not as great for the worker who wants to go make snow people with the kids). One company, Kolabtree, predicts that by 2020, 50% of the U.S. workforce will be freelancing. I don’t know if that’s true, but I do think companies need to take care of their employees well and do whatever they can to keep workers happy. If given the right flexibility, even I would consider becoming an employee again! Are you considering working remotely and want help tailoring your resume or LinkedIn profile for the position? Contact us. Well be happy to help you focus your career documents for the job you want.

Monday, February 17, 2020

It security Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

It security - Case Study Example It largely depends on IT infrastructural resources and assets for the completion of its transactions and operations. The average users of the system include the IT administrators and the staff, most of which posses above average computer literacy. The staff basically requires a computer running on a UNIX platform networked to the company’s server especially those located at the satellite offices across the country. Security policy is the most crucial element of a company’s security program given that it entails all the rules and procedures that must be adhered in order to ensure information security; the integrity, confidentiality and availability of data 1. It is the policy of DechTech Solutions that information, in all forms, is protected from unauthorized modification, destruction or disclosure in order to ensure the integrity, confidentiality and availability of data to all the employees and the and other users. The Chief Information Officer (CIO) alongside the Information Security Officer (ISO) has the primary responsibility for the policy implementation and assuring compliance. They work closely with owners, user management and custodians in development and implementation of the security policies of DechTech Solutions. Their responsibilities include; the provision of basic support for users and systems, ensuring that DechTech Solutions security procedures, policies and standards are in place and are adhered to, the provision of advice to owners in the identification and classification of computer resources, performing security audits, advising system development owners in the implementation of security controls, providing employee security education and providing regular reports DechTech oversight committee on information security. Information owner, the manager responsible for the creation of information and is usually the primary user1, is responsible for authorizing access and assigning